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Nobel Awarded for Lithium-Ion Batteries and Portable Power
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    John Goodenough

    The University of Texas at Austin, Cockrell School of Engineering

    M. Stanley Whittingham

    Jonathan Cohen/Binghamton University

    Akira Yoshino

    European Patent Office

    From left: John Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino were awarded the 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for developing lithium-ion batteries.

    The University of Texas at Austin, Cockrell School of Engineering;  Jonathan Cohen/Binghamton University;European Patent Office 

    “It may look relatively easy to make a battery,” Ramström said. “However, that is definitely not the case. It’s really very, very hard to produce, design and develop well-working and efficient batteries.”

    But Whittingham, Goodenough and Yoshino found a way.

    In the 1970s, Whittingham was doing research on new superconducting materials, with a focus on layered solids that could easily take up ions into their matrix. The relevance of this work to battery development soon became apparent. This led Whittingham to develop a new cathode material, titanium disulphide, that allowed lithium ions to move freely within it. “Stan was there at the beginning. He was using very classical solid-state chemistry principles that he’d come up with” previously at the University of Oxford and Stanford University, Grey said. His cathode research “formed the basis of finding the whole classes of materials and the ideas that we’ve built on over the years.”

    Goodenough then improved on the design of the battery based on Whittingham’s work. From his understanding of the chemical principles involved, he realized that a metal oxide material could hold more energy in the cathode than a metal sulphide could. Eventually, he found that if he replaced the titanium disulphide cathode with one made of cobalt oxide, he could nearly double the battery’s voltage, while also increasing energy capacity, allowing for higher voltage batteries with extended life per charge.

    [Image: Stacks of unmounted lithium-ion batteries on metal shelves.]  
    Batteries waiting to be mounted are stacked on shelves in a laboratory at the Asahi Kasei Corporation, where Yoshino is a fellow.


    Vanessa Wood, a professor in the department of information technology and electrical engineering at ETH Zürich, notes that Goodenough’s layered cathode design is still in use today. “If you look at the evolution of the battery from Sony’s first commercialization of it in ’91 to what we have in the Tesla cars today, or our laptops and cell phones, those cathode materials have been one of the key sources of improvement and innovation.”

    A final set of improvements came from Yoshino and focused on the anode. The lithium metal anode had always been problematic, not least because its instability could sometimes cause the batteries to short-circuit and explode. “The initial stage of my research was not for secondary batteries,” Yoshino said during a phone interview with the Nobel Committee at the announcement ceremony. “The first step was new materials: electroconductive polymers.” Nevertheless, that research showed Yoshino how to replace the pure lithium metal anode with one made of petroleum coke, a carbon matrix. When paired with Goodenough’s new cathode, it created a safe, lightweight and highly efficient battery.

    That design is ubiquitous today, powering portable electronics and helping to shift the world’s energy infrastructure in a more sustainable direction, as it allows electricity produced from renewable sources, such as the sun and the wind, to be efficiently stored and put to work.

    “All three Nobel winners played vital roles in this energy storage revolution, which has now placed power in our pockets,” Coxon said.

    “These batteries have helped power the portable revolution and now have a crucial role in electric vehicles to lowering emissions and improving air quality,” said Saiful Islam, a professor of chemistry in the energy materials research group at the University of Bath. “In fact, most people probably saw this Nobel Prize news on a device powered by a lithium-ion battery. In my view, this award is long overdue and it’s great to see that this important area of materials chemistry has been recognized.”

    This article includes contributions from Elena Renken.

    Michel Mayor, Didier Queloz and James Peebles won this year’s Nobel Prize in Physics, and William G. Kaelin Jr., Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

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